Podcast Transcends Borders

Podcast Transcends Borders

Ana Gloria Rodriguez, Kumeyaay from San Jose de la Zorra, Mexico, from the “Kumeyaay Nation Divided by the Border” episode.

Looking for a new podcast? Tune into “Divided Together,” a new series created by the Tijuana River Reserve for the Border Field State Park, located in the southern part of the Reserve. Launched on September 24, California’s Native American Day, this weekly podcast explores themes of separation and unification in the region’s geography, culture, and ecology.

The Tijuana River Estuary spans the U.S./Mexico border; only 25% of its watershed is located within the U.S. Parts of the watershed are ancestral lands of the area’s First People, the Kumeyaay. The podcast’s first episode, “Kumeyaay Nation Divided by the Border,” looks at the impact of the border on the Kumeyaay, who have lived in this area for thousands of years

“The episode is wonderful, so well done, and such a valuable resource,” says Catherine Thiemann, Friends of Friendship Park Member. “I am so grateful that State Parks is centering and lifting up Kumeyaay voices.”

Future episodes will discuss Kumeyaay land use practices; the impacts altering these practices has had on the environment; the history and impact of border enforcement, and how scientists and geographers collaborate across the border to protect and understand the land. The first season, a four part series, comes out this fall, and the next season is planned for the spring 2022.

The podcast can be found on the Tijuana River Reserve’s website or wherever you get your podcasts (Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Stitcher, Podchaser, Pandora, iHeartRadio, and TuneIn).

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Border Field Park Celebrates 50th

Border Field Park Celebrates 50th

Dr. Stanley Rodriguez from the Santa Isabel Iipay Nation.

We celebrated the 50th anniversary of California’s Border Field State Park in August, along with our Tijuana River Reserve! 

There was a series of interpretive booths located throughout the park illustrating what makes the Tijuana River Reserve so special. The Tijuana River Estuary is located where the river flows into the sea and where two countries meet. While the estuary itself is located on the U.S. side of the border, it makes up only 25 percent of the total watershed, with the remaining portion located in Mexico. 

“Congratulations to Border Field State Park on its 50th anniversary,” said California State Parks Director Armando Quintero. “Home to the Kumeyaay [people indigenous to this region] and our neighbor, Mexico, this region has provided opportunities for families, friends and communities to connect domestically and internationally for hundreds of years. State Parks is proud to be the caretaker of this special place.”

The celebration took place on Monument Mesa and included the launch of a new podcast series and an app with stories from the Kumeyaay integrated into a self-guided tour. We’re looking forward to celebrating the Reserve’s 40th anniversary next year!

Assistant Reserve Manager Lorena Warner-Lara at the stewardship booth.

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Managing Sediment as a Resource

Managing Sediment as a Resource

The Tijuana River Reserve is advancing a decades-long effort to answer one not-so-simple question: What are we going to do about sediment along the South California coast?

Moved by rivers, currents, storms, and other processes, sediment is an unglamorous but fundamental driver of the shape, stability, and appearance of the region’s coastal areas and habitats. Yet as the coast becomes more urbanized, the supply and flow of sediment has become increasingly impacted by human activities.

“Sediment has long been viewed as a contaminant, or something to be ‘dealt with,’ and often it is just dumped offshore at deep ocean sites or trucked off to landfills,” says Kristen Goodrich, the Reserve’s Coastal Training Program Coordinator. “But it’s actually a critical natural resource that we need to view as beneficial.”

For example, in some cases, sediment can be used to help maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level rise, grade developments, or to build up beaches and dunes and promote living shorelines through practices like beach nourishment and thin-layer augmentation. Local sources of sediment are more sustainable than those transported or slurried from distant locations, however, in many places, the beneficial reuse of locally-derived sediment remains unfeasible.

Goodrich partnered with researchers from the University of California Irvine and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project to study barriers and opportunities to the beneficial reuse of sediment. Their findings, published in Ocean & Coastal Management, outline opportunities for systemic changes to encourage the beneficial reuse of sediment to support coastal resilience in Southern California.

The research team found regulatory inflexibility to be a significant obstacle to reuse, as federal, state, and local agencies often have different, sometimes incompatible, permitting requirements and processes. Reuse also can be restricted by technical challenges associated with matching sediment types between dredging sites and the sites where sediment is needed. Even psychological aspects come into play, such as public perceptions that sediment placement may damage the attraction or health of the placement site.

The team presented several recommendations to address barriers like these, some of which are already being tested by managers in the region. These include streamlining the permitting process, training and education, and incorporating the financial benefits of sediment reuse into project planning. In a subsequent paper in Shore & Beach, Goodrich and colleagues—representing perspectives from coastal sediment management organizations in California—called for improved regional sediment management, as well as increasing organizational capacity and coordination.

“We need to work together as a region to effectively manage our sediment for the future of our coasts and wetlands,” says Goodrich.

The Reserve is one of the few sites in California that is experiencing an excess, rather than a shortage, of sediment due to natural erosion processes exacerbated by urban development in its binational setting. This creates a unique opportunity for the Reserve to test and study different approaches to beneficial use and then share the results of these studies for the broader coastal management community. For example, the Tijuana River Estuary Fate & Transport Study showed that fine-grained sediment, when placed in the coastal nearshore, is distributed in ways that reinforce this as a promising beneficial use approach and an alternative to current practices that involve excavation and trucking off-site.

“Right now we have an abundance of sediment, which gives us an opportunity to study beneficial reuse in creative and sustainable ways,” says Goodrich. “But as land use changes in the border region, we could see less sediment carried downstream in the future. As we plan for sea level rise, we want to have protective beneficial use practices understood and in place.”

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Talk NERRdy to Me: Nancy Torres & Matt Virden

Talk NERRdy to Me: Nancy Torres & Matt Virden

Talk NERRdy to Me is a monthly column about leaders and luminaries from across our 29-soon-to-be-30 Reserves. This month, NERRA’s correspondent-at-large Nik Charov interviewed two Davidson fellows for the price of one: Nancy Torres (above left), at California’s Tijuana River Reserve, and Matt Virden (above right), from Mississippi’s Grand Bay Reserve. In our system for only half a year, they’ve already drunk our brackish Kool Aid.

Nik: Nancy and Matt, welcome to Talk NERRdy, this time with two people! Double the pleasure, double the fun. You’re both Davidson fellows, which is a new program for the NERRS. First of all, how did you find the fellowship program?

Nancy: My advisor, Jeff Crooks, was actually at the Tijuana River Reserve. We came up with some projects combining my interest in ecotoxicology with the needs of the Reserve listed for the fellowship. I’m always looking for mentorship opportunities.

Matt: I worked for Mississippi State University Coastal Research and Extension Center. I had a research project that I was just finishing up, and my boss said ‘there’s this new opportunity I’ve heard about, would you be interested?’ I had worked with the people at Grand Bay Reserve a few times, so I knew what they were about and what was going to happen with the project.

Nik: So Nancy, are you from California, and Matt, are you from Mississippi?

Nancy: Yeah, I’m from Southern California, Greater Los Angeles area. Now I’m two hours south of that. I go to school at the University of San Diego, and the Reserve is about a 20-minute drive south.

Matt: I’m from Montgomery, Alabama. I moved to Starkle, Mississippi, for undergrad at Mississippi State University, and then came down to the coast after I graduated.

Nik: Had either of you worked coastally before? 

Matt: My major was Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture. I randomly took an internship with my advisor in 2018, and that’s how I ended up on the coast. When I came down here, I liked it a lot.

Nancy: I did my undergrad at UC Santa Barbara, which has a beautiful campus right on the coast. I got my first internship there at the Valentine Lab of Earth Sciences. I did a project on microbial oceanography, and I realized the extent of all the coastal issues there are to help with, so now I’m getting my master’s here in Environmental & Ocean Sciences.

Nik: Did either of you worry about finding a job or career in these fields? You’re of a generation that has seen a couple economic collapses in your lifetime. So I always wonder about recent college grads: did you think that there would be opportunities going forward?

Nancy: I had no idea what getting an environmental science degree meant career-wise when I was interested in pursuing one! Luckily I was part of the McNairs Scholars Program that helps underrepresented groups on their way to get their PhD. That program gave me the tools to understand what research actually means, how to conceptualize a project, how to work with an advisor…

Matt: I don’t think I ever worried about finding a job, but I was more worried about what I, personally, would want to do, because I don’t know! People still ask, and I tell them, well, I’ve got a couple more years to figure it out. Hopefully I do!

Nik: You both have gravitated towards wildlife, oceans… were there experiences earlier in your lives that pushed you towards this? Were you outdoorsy kids? 

Nancy: I’ve always loved being outdoors, yes. And then when I went to UC Santa Barbara, I spent a lot more time outdoors, being by the coast, and I became aware of all these environmental issues. I really wanted to be part of that and do what I could.

Matt: Right along the same lines, I always loved being outdoors. Growing up in Alabama, that’s pretty much what you dogo outdoors. And then my grandmother lives along the Florida coast, so we’d always go down and visit her every summer. I remembered that when I did my first internshipI was like, oh yeah, I love the coast! That was probably a major reason I got into the field.

Nik: In both Santa Barbara and Grand Bay, the oil industry is a big presence. I mean, you can see oil rigs from the shore, usually. How does that play into your experiences? 

Matt: Events like the Deepwater Horizon spill have funded a lot of environmental work and restoration. That’s the side I’m more involved in. The project I’m doing research on, studying oyster reefs, is funded from the BP settlement. So indirectly, it affects everything I’m working on.

Nancy: Walking along the shores in Santa Barbara, you would get tar spots on your feet pretty regularly. It was a normal thing to bring oil wipes so you could just wipe them off. My first research project was to see how the microbes around the area respond to large amounts of oil and hydrocarbons.

Nik: Tell me more about your current projects.

Nancy: Mine involves ecotoxicology. I’ll be sampling sediments and target species to use as abiotic and biotic indicators of the contaminant levels within the Tijuana River Estuary. I’m doing my own fieldwork assessing current conditions to combine with historical data from past monitoring efforts to get a timeline of pollution levels within the area and see how that’s been responding to changing inputs and management strategies. It’s especially exciting because there’s a lot of interest in remediating that pollution right now.

Nik: For those who don’t know, Tijuana’s unique in that half of the watershed is in Mexico, yes? So are you working across the border?

Nancy: Yes, about a whole 2/3 of the watershed is in Mexico. I want to! I am very interested in adding a social science component, because both communities are being affected by the issue that’s presented here. I want to find a way I can do outreach and turn it into a win-win situation for everybody. 

Nik: What about you, Matt?

Matt: Like I mentioned, it’s a very large RESTORE-funded project in Mississippi. They’re constructing oyster reefs at four different bays along the coast, including Grand Bay. They’ll be constructing multiple different designs at two different locations, both intertidal and subtidal reefs. So my project is really to come in and evaluate how those reefs are performing. 

Nik: Is this an aquaculture project, studying the oysters themselves, or their impact?

Matt: Their impact. I’m really looking at secondary productivity and wave energy. Basically if they have any effects on the waves and shorelinesif they reduce erosion or if there’s any kind of interaction between the shoreline and the reefs. One aspect of the project is the Management Application Team. We call it the MAT. Different stakeholders get together and influence the project, give suggestions about what they would like to see from the project, or if we’re doing something wrong or could be doing it better, they give us a heads up and suggest ‘hey, try it this way.’ This way we get that input while the project is still going on.

Nik: The Davidson Fellowships are short timeframes, so I’m sure you’ve had to hit the ground… eh, the water running… eh, swimming. How have you been welcomed into the system and into your individual Reserves? I know it’s been difficult for everybody with the pandemic.

Nancy: My Reserve has weekly meetings online, so at least we “see” each other pretty consistently. And across the NERRS there’s always really cool events. At the annual meeting you could really tell everyone’s an awesome group of people looking to collaborate. 

Nik: That’s good to hear. It was our first-ever virtual one… we were making it up as we went along!

Matt: I’ve gotten four emails this morning about working with staff at the Reserve for a presentation to local educators. Even though that’s not my project, they still invite me in and are asking me to bring aspects of my research in.

Nik: Have you two found other ways to go “cross-sector”?

Matt: Yeah, definitely. It’s pretty cool the amount of opportunities that have arisen just from applying to this fellowship. I now have connections with NOAA, the Reserve staff, the state partner. And also all the other Davidson fellows. Everyone gets together to talk about papers and projects. 

Nancy: Yeah, it’s been really cool collaborating with all the fellows. Everyone that manages the fellows has done a really great job making sure we’re all connected and supported. There are a lot of opportunities to collaborate with others.

Nik: It sounds so 21st Century, in the whole networking aspect! If you started in science 40 years ago, you might be getting papers on microfiche and having to read them at the library. And if you wanted to get in contact with somebody you had to call or write them a letter and wait a couple months! The whole collaborative aspect of science, on which the NERRS is built, seems to be part of the foundation of the fellowship program too. We’re grateful to Congress that they took this leap and stepped up to fund the Davidson Fellows. It’s so gratifying to see new young scientists that are going to go out there and make a difference. I’m glad we got the chance to catch up. What advice would you have for the next class of fellows?

Matt: Take all the opportunities that you can, even if they’re not mandatory. The more stuff you can do, the more people that you meet, that’s just more experience for you.

Nancy: Come open-minded and with the intent of staying flexible and finding ways to develop collaboration. I feel like I keep saying the word collaboration! But it’s so integral to project development. What’s really important is to think of who your project will benefit, who’s your audience, and reach out to as many stakeholders as you can in the beginning. Think about different perspectives and the communities who would be affected by your project results. 

Nik: I love to hear folks new to our system, part of this new program, already talking about it’s essential NERRdiness. You’re pulling on the strands of what ties the system together. You already see it’s not just these different places, it’s a network for collaboration across geographies and sectors. You’ve drunk the Kool Aid.

Nancy Torres (left).

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Local Knowledge Strengthens Flood Resilience

Local Knowledge Strengthens Flood Resilience

Photos courtesy of the Tijuana River Reserve unless otherwise noted.

Residents of the Tijuana River watershed know pouring rain can mean more than an afternoon spent indoors. In the worst cases, sediment and debris bury sensitive habitats, impact evacuation routes, and cause head-high flooding in communities in Los Laureles Canyon, in Tijuana, Mexico.

“Flooding can not only cause ecological damage, it also presents major risk to human health and security in local communities,” says Kristen Goodrich, coastal training program (CTP) coordinator at the Tijuana River Reserve.

Photo courtesy Steve Zylius.

Navigating these risks gives residents on the U.S. and Mexican sides of the watershed unique knowledge that can help their communities be more resilient in the future. Their experiences informed the Flood Resilience Infrastructure and Sustainable Environments (FloodRISE) project —an initiative to promote resilience to coastal flooding in Southern and Baja California by mapping hazards and making this information available to local communities.

FloodRISE is led by the University of California, Irvine, and funded by the National Science Foundation. As part of the interdisciplinary project team, the Reserve’s CTP focused on research impact and integration at the project’s southern sites. They created a bridge between the project and local communities by applying collaborative modeling, an iterative process that brings scientists and decision-makers together to define problems and find solutions.

Through this process, local residents helped shape the project’s flood models, maps, and, ultimately, a hazard viewer that can be used to support planning and response.

Social scientists, including Goodrich, conducted in-depth interviews, surveys, and focus groups with community members on both sides of the border to better understand aspects of their lived experience with flooding. 

This approach, grounded in rationale from the public health field, built upon community strengths. For example, surveyors in Tijuana were also community members, which according to Goodrich, increased participation.

“The high completion rate—more than 365 surveys collected in a steep, erosive canyon—was largely due to engaging people who live in the community in the research process. They know, far better than us, about the issues and the best approaches for reaching and working with vulnerable populations and navigating—literally—difficult terrain.” 

The Tijuana River Reserve was also able to point researchers to city planners, emergency responders, and others who could provide critical feedback on their model and how well they addressed decision-making needs.

“In Los Laureles, we knew the initial models weren’t depicting what was happening,” says Goodrich. “Through collaborative modeling we were able to reflect the reality—that significant debris can block flood water conveyance channels. One resident told us about a mattress blocking a culvert that caused head high flooding—that’s something we couldn’t have known without going into the community and listening.” 

The FloodRISE hazard viewer reflects their knowledge by including, for example, the ability to see what happens when flood channels are blocked. CTP provided training to decision-makers, including community members, on the viewer to support its use in land use planning, emergency response, and wetlands restoration, and ultimately, improve flood resilience.

The Reserve is also developing a partnership with Protección Civil, a Mexican emergency preparedness and response agency, building upon efforts through NOAA’s Marine Debris Program. Their goal is to develop training and educational materials to promote awareness of the relationship between solid waste and flooding, encourage residents to take actions that clear flood channels before a rain event, and equip decision makers with science-based information to improve policy response.

Intercepting the trash that enters the Tijuana River Estuary is part of the Reserve’s ongoing efforts to protect the estuary and reduce marine debris.

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Talk NERRdy to Me: Kristen Goodrich

Talk NERRdy to Me: Kristen Goodrich

Talk NERRdy to Me follows leaders and luminaries from across our 29 reserves. This month, NERRA’s correspondent-at-large Nik Charov chatted with Dr. Kristen Goodrich, coastal training coordinator, boundary spanner, long-time brewer with more time on her hands, newly-minted PhD, and a true adaptive mind from California’s Tijuana River Reserve.

Nik: This month I’m talking briefly with Dr. Kristen Goodrich of the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, where she’s the Coastal Training Program coordinator [CTP]. Of course, it doesn’t have to be brief, because who’s going anywhere right now? 

Kristen: We have all the time in the world!

Nik: You’re CTP, you’ve been dealing with change on our coasts, but over the past month, what’s changed fastest in our world is this pandemic. How are you holding up?

Kristen: I’m just feeling grateful to have my job and the work and a comfortable home. The company of my weiner dog has been very helpful. 

Nik: You recently became a doctor—are you worried about being called up to the front lines in the hospitals?

Kristen: I’m not, I have no training or skills in that department!

Nik: There’s a different front line you’ve been on. What’s your new PhD in, and how’s it going to help?

Kristen: My PhD is in social ecology and is based, in part, on issues faced by communities that we interface with at the Tijuana River Reserve—mostly in canyons adjacent to the estuary in Tijuana, Mexico. My research looked at issues around flood resilience and adaptive management, but what became very clear to me through that work was the enormous pressure on environmental professionals and resulting mental health impacts. Ever since, I’ve been looking to build support for environmental professionals who are working on the front lines of climate change.

Dr. Goodrich and Salchicha the weiner dog participate in an online training to help professionals plan and facilitate engaging virtual meetings. 

Nik: When you say “adaptive management,” is it the management of the resources, or the people managing the resources? I understand adaptive is “changing over the course of change” but what’s the management part?

Kristen: It’s both. For example, I started by thinking that in order for natural resource managers to be able to adaptively manage for resource protection in their work, they need to be adaptive individuals, and psychological resilience plays a role in that. 

Nik: What grade would you give yourself for your adaptation to this current Covid situation?

Kristen: I’d say I’m doing fairly well. How about an A-?

Nik: Wow, nice. I’m a D+.

Kristen: I’m coming off a pretty intense six-year period for my PhD. I filed all my paperwork over the holidays, jumped back into work full-time, and then… coronavirus. So this is actually a moment of slowing down in ways I haven’t seen in many years. If I can compartmentalize and not look at the incredible tragedy of it all, it has been lovely to be home and be slowing down.

Nik: You’re welcome. Your latest project involves a number of Reserves and coping with stress, doesn’t it?

Kristen: The Adaptive Mind project brings together thinking around mental health and resilience for groups including the Research Reserve system. The idea is that we’re experiencing constant change and uncertainty, and more frequent and traumatic disruptions, including natural disasters. All of that requires people to engage in what we’re thinking about as transformative change. That’s hard in itself, but it’s going to get a lot harder. Folks working on environmental protection and resource management are on the front lines; there are also serving (and often in) front line communities, and there are health impacts associated with that.

I focus on the environmental professionals like those within the Reserves: we have our educators, our researchers, our coastal training community as boundary-spanners. We are people engaging with climate change and its impacts in many different ways, and in some cases, experiencing burnout because of the demands of the work.

Nik: You graded yourself on your pandemic response, but stepping back pre-coronavirus, how were environmental professionals and communities feeling?

Kristen: We conducted a survey of professionals working on climate change and adaptation, like NERRs and groups like Sea Grant, the Urban Sustainability Directors Network, and the American Society for Adaptation Professionals. The results were somewhat troubling: we saw really high levels of burnout and lots of issues around dealing with the urgency of climate change. Individuals felt like they were not doing enough fast enough. The barriers of bureaucracy and inflexibility create a work environment that makes it really difficult to respond to the existential threat and urgency of climate change in a way that feels meaningful and timely. 

We also looked at what we called “frequency of feelings.” They reported monthly or weekly emotional exhaustion from the topics that they addressed. But they also reported that they were determined to succeed, because of what they know about climate change and its impacts. It’s the perfect recipe for burnout. So the Adaptive Mind project looks for ways to support environmental professionals and other groups on the frontline of climate change.

Nik: Do you think those findings would scan over to healthcare professionals right now? 

Kristen: Absolutely. Our thinking was informed by what was being done, pre-coronavirus, on the impacts of stress, anxiety, grief, and mental health within the health and emergency response fields. I would imagine right now it’s even more relevant. There are a number of parallels between what’s happening with coronavirus now and the compounding anxiety related to persistent threats to our planet’s health.

Nik: You called the CTP community “boundary-spanners.” Is that something that comes specifically from your experience on the border? 

Kristen: Yes, I’ve learned a lot about boundary spanning—and barriers to it—from work on the border. My CTP family is the inspiration for a paper that colleagues and I just wrote about who they are and how to support them. To address sustainability challenges, boundary-spanners help link science to decision-making. Which is exactly why the coastal training program is in place—to work across disciplines and span different boundaries to help knowledge become more actionable. This couldn’t be more important now that we’re thinking about coronavirus. How do we take the science and knowledge we’re rapidly gaining and apply it to issues?

Nik: I think we should just put it all on Facebook and let the world decide. What makes a good boundary spanner?

Kristen: They’re considered communications stars, they have empathy, they have cross-cultural competencies, emotional intelligence, oftentimes a lot of social capital and knowledge and that helps, and may amplify, cross-boundary organizing and relationship-building. They play that unique role in the space between science and policy. And I think they will become increasingly important as we move into these uncertain futures.

Nik: What’s your advice for boundary-spanners, whether they work on environmental challenges or the pandemic response? Faced with the monumental indifference of nature, which seems lately like it wants to wipe out our civilization, how do we stay sane? How do we stay productive?

Kristen: There are parallels between the existential dread of climate change and of coronavirus. This is a moment to be sensitive to compounding anxiety: how are we thinking about coronavirus on top of the already heightened anxiety about climate change? In both situations, there’s a feeling of being out of control. We’re being forced to develop new coping skills, and that can be really stressful because the tools we used in the past may not be the  best ones anymore.

Of course, another layer is the disproportionate effects on disadvantaged communities. I see a lot of parallels in how folks on the front line are impacted by coronavirus and climate change. That calls into question: what can we do about both, maybe at the same time? There maybe are some ways to better cope with both crises. 

Nik: Such as?

Kristen: Learning to take care of ourselves better, for one. If we take better care of ourselves and others, maybe those tools will help us address climate change once the virus is contained and as we get into a new version of normal. I think the issue of self-care is going to be crucial for folks to weather this storm and then weather the longer climate change projections.

Nik: I’m eating and drinking as if each day were my last. The 19 in Covid-19 is actually pounds.

Kristen: I’ve been cooking a lot and experimenting with new beer brewing recipes.

Nik: You’re an essential service! What’s your favorite part of your job?

Kristen: Prior to coronavirus, the ability to work in Mexico and look at the social-ecological system. The border region is infinitely fascinating to me. It creates such complex, and often frustrating, circumstances that impede progress. But it offers this unique opportunity to think about collaboration and coordination. I love my job. 

Nik: You grew up on Long Island, you were a waitress on Fire Island. You went to the University of Miami and did work in the Gulf of Mexico. Now you’re on the Pacific. What’s your favorite body of water? Salty or fresh?

Kristen: I’ve definitely been enjoying the Pacific. The kelp forest is just amazing. It’s a lot colder than the Caribbean where I did a lot of my coral reef research, but the Pacific is spectacular. So are the bright orange garibaldis. Salty! 

Nik: Favorite animal?

Kristen: My weiner dog, Salchicha (spanish for sausage or hot dog). She’s a rescue from Tijuana and she’s been a terrific comfort to me through this pandemic and my dissertation.

Nik: Lucky dog. Thank you, Dr. Kristen Goodrich.

Kristen: Be well, everyone. Remember: we can flatten the curve. There’s a lot to be taken from that in how to be hopeful—while understanding ongoing losses, we can have an impact. That’s where I see the most parallels to climate change. 

Nik: Gotta find the hope.

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